NATO secretary general Jens Stoltenberg said he welcomed President Barack Obama's decision to keep US troops in Afghanistan longer than planned as part of a "crucial" effort to support Kabul.
US Defense Secretary Ashton Carter indicated the United States would maintain extra troops in Afghanistan beyond the end of next year.
Military commanders from Russia and the United States will hold another round of talks on how to stay out of each other's way in the skies over Syria.
China's Minister of Defense Chang Wanquan has arrived to Kazakhstan on an official visit.
President Vladimir Putin said that Russia would not deploy ground troops to Syria, where it has been conducting air strikes against what it says are Islamic State target.
US Defence Secretary Ashton Carter predicted Russia would soon begin suffering casualties in Syria, as Moscow dramatically ramps up its military campaign in the devastated nation.
NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg said there had been a "troubling escalation" in Russian military activity in Syria, after Moscow dramatically expanded its air campaign.
Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said only two Russian air strikes in Syria had targeted Islamic State jihadists and warned that Ankara would not make any concessions about the security of its borders
Australia will spend Aus$1.3 billion (US$1 billion) on next-generation armoured land vehicles for its army, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull said as he announced the latest update to modernise the nation's military.
US Defence Secretary Ashton Carter arrived in Madrid, beginning a European tour amid alarm over Russian bombardments in Syria and the refugee crisis sparked by the conflict.
British Prime Minister David Cameron urged Russian President Vladimir Putin to "change direction" in Syria and recognise that its President Bashar al-Assad must be replaced.
The Syrian authorities on Sunday briefly detained a prominent opposition figure days after he criticised Russian air strikes in Syria.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Saturday urged Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin to reconsider Moscow's bombing campaign in Syria.
Chechen strongman Ramzan Kadyrov called on the Kremlin to let a contingent from his region fight the Islamic State in Syria, where Russia launched air strikes earlier this week.
Russian air strikes in Syria will last for three to four months and will intensify, a senior Russian lawmaker said as President Vladimir Putin was due in Paris for talks.
NATO General Philip Breedlove expressed concern Monday about the strength of Russia's military build-up in northwestern Syria and the apparent creation of a defensive "bubble" in the Mediterranean.
Four soldiers have drowned during the second stage of Center 2015 military drills in Aktau, Kazakhstan.
The United States and Russia could find ways to cooperate on the crisis in Syria, Pentagon chief Ashton Carter said, as Moscow continues a military build-up in the war-torn nation.
Russia is still sending weapons to separatist rebels battling the Ukrainian government despite a fresh truce in the war-torn east of the country.
Russia's military backing for the Syrian regime only risks sending more extremists to the war-torn country and could further hamper any effort at bringing peace.
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- Ministry of Defense
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