Fact-file on sanctions against Iran17 november 2011, 15:30
With Western pressure growing for new sanctions on Iran after the UN nuclear watchdog published its harshest report yet on Tehran's nuclear programme, here are sanctions taken to date:
THE UNITED NATIONS
Since 2006, four UN Security Council resolutions on the Iranian nuclear programme have involved sanctions:
- Resolution 1737, adopted on December 23, 2006, demands the suspension of Iran's sensitive nuclear activities and lays down a ban on trade with Iran of all items, materials, equipment, goods and technology that could contribute to Tehran's uranium enrichment programme. It also provides for a freeze on overseas assets of 12 officials and 10 institutions directly linked to the programme.
A general view of the Iranian nuclear power plant of Natanz, 270 kms south of Tehran. ©AFP
- Resolution 1747, adopted on March 24, 2007, extends the scope of the previous resolution and includes a ban on all Iranian arms exports and a freeze on overseas assets of 13 institutions and 15 additional officials linked to the programme.
- Resolution 1803, adopted on March 3, 2008, involves an outright travel ban on officials involved in Iran's nuclear programme.
- Resolution 1929, adopted on June 9, 2010, expands the arms embargo and bars the country from sensitive activities like uranium mining. It adds 40 entities to a list of people and groups subject to travel restrictions and financial sanctions.
THE UNITED STATES
- On April 30, 1995, Washington slaps an economic embargo on Iran which is accused of backing terrorism, banning all trade and investment.
- US President Barack Obama on July 1, 2010 signs into law the toughest ever US sanctions on Iran. They are aimed at choking off Iran's access to imports of refined petroleum products like gasoline and jet fuel and curbing its access to the international banking system.
Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad visiting the Natanz uranium enrichment facility, 270 kms south of Tehran. ©AFP
- The freezing of Iranian assets, imposed in 1979 at the time of the hostage taking at the US embassy in Tehran, is renewed in November 2010.
THE EUROPEAN UNION
- EU sanctions imposed on Tehran on July 26, 2010, include a ban on the sale of equipment, technology and services to Iran's energy sector, hitting activities in refining, liquefied natural gas, exploration and production.
New investments in the energy sector are also banned under the sanctions. Iran's banking sector is also hit by restrictions forcing any transactions over 40,000 euros to be authorised by EU governments before they can go ahead.
The reactor building at the Russian-built Bushehr nuclear power plant in southern Iran, 1200 Kms south of Tehran. ©AFP
Some 41 individuals and 22 government entities are concerned by an asset freeze.
- On May 23, 2011 the EU adds more than 100 firms to a blacklist of companies hit by the asset freeze.
Iran may until recently have carried out nuclear work with possible military links, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Director General Yukiya Amano said.